Anatomy and Function of the Liver

The liver, one of the most vital organs in the human body, plays a significant role in maintaining overall health and well-being. Its unique structure and multifunctional capabilities make it an essential component of various bodily processes. This article will delve into the intricate anatomy and explore the diverse functions performed by this remarkable organ.

Anatomy of the Liver

Situated beneath the diaphragm, the liver is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. Weighing approximately three pounds, it is the largest glandular organ in the body. It consists of two primary lobes: the right lobe and the smaller left lobe.

The liver receives blood supply from two sources: the hepatic artery delivers oxygenated blood, and the portal vein brings nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood from the digestive organs. These blood vessels form sinusoids, a network of capillaries within them that facilitate exchange with hepatocytes.

The organ is organized into functional units called lobules, which are hexagonal in shape and composed of hepatocytes. Each lobule contains a central vein. Hepatocytes play a vital role in synthesizing and secreting bile, which aids in digestion and fat breakdown.

Positioned below the diaphragm and above the stomach, right kidney, and intestines, it has a reddish-brown color and a cone-like or wedge-like shape. It holds about one pint (13%) of the body’s blood supply.

Anatomy of Liver
Anatomy of Liver

The liver consists of four lobes: the larger right lobe, smaller left lobe, caudate lobe, and quadrate lobe. The falciform ligament divides these lobes and connects the liver to the abdominal wall. Additionally, the liver is composed of eight segments, each comprising numerous lobules. These lobules are connected to small ducts that eventually join to form the common hepatic duct. This duct carries bile from them to the gallbladder and duodenum through the common bile duct.

Parts of the Liver

The liver is composed of various parts, including the common hepatic duct, falciform ligament, Glisson’s capsule, hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, lobes, lobules, and peritoneum.

Common Hepatic Duct:

This is a tube that carries bile out of the liver. It is formed by the intersection of the right and left hepatic ducts. Its structure allows for the efficient transport of bile, which plays a crucial role in digestion and the breakdown of fats.

Falciform Ligament

The falciform ligament is a thin, fibrous ligament that separates the two lobes of the liver and attaches the liver to the abdominal wall. Its structure provides support and stability to liver, keeping it in its proper position within the abdomen.

Glisson’s Capsule:

Glisson’s capsule is a layer of loose connective tissue that surrounds the liver and its associated arteries and ducts. Its structure provides a protective covering for the liver, helping to maintain its shape and integrity.

Hepatic Artery:

The hepatic artery is the main blood vessel that supplies the liver with oxygenated blood. Its structure includes a network of small blood vessels that branch out to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the liver cells, ensuring proper function and metabolism.

Hepatic Portal Vein:

The hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen to the liver. Its structure consists of a large vein that collects nutrient-rich blood from these organs and delivers it to the liver for processing and detoxification.


The liver is divided into distinct anatomical sections called lobes. The lobes, such as the right lobe and left lobe, have a well-defined structure and are responsible for various functions within them, including bile production, detoxification, and nutrient processing.


Lobules are the microscopic building blocks of the liver. They are small, functional units within the liver that consist of hepatocytes arranged in a specific pattern. The structure of lobules allows for efficient blood flow and facilitates the liver’s essential functions, such as filtration, metabolism, and storage.


The peritoneum is a membrane that covers the liver, forming its external layer. Its structure provides a protective barrier for the liver, preventing damage from external factors. Additionally, the peritoneum helps to anchor the liver in place and allows for movement and flexibility within the abdominal cavity.

Structure of Liver Lobule
Structure of Liver Lobule

Functions of Liver

It plays a crucial role in the body, performing vital functions such as synthesizing, storing, and breaking down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. It detoxifies harmful substances, produces and releases bile for digestion, stores and releases nutrients, produces blood components, regulates cholesterol, and supports the immune system.

Metabolic Functions

  • Liver synthesizes, stores, and breaks down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
  • It regulates blood glucose levels and produces essential proteins and cholesterol.


  • The liver filters harmful substances, metabolizing them into less toxic or water-soluble forms.
  • It aids in the elimination of toxins, drugs, and metabolic byproducts through urine or bile.

Bile Production and Excretion:

  • It produces and secretes bile, necessary for fat digestion and absorption.
  • Bile aids in breaking down fats and facilitating their absorption in the small intestine.

Storage and Release of Nutrients:

  • It stores excess glucose as glycogen, releasing it when needed.
  • It also stores essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients for future use.

Production of Blood Components:

  • The liver produces clotting factors and synthesizes new red blood cells.
  • It filters and removes damaged or old red blood cells from circulation.

Cholesterol Regulation:

  • The liver controls cholesterol levels by producing and eliminating excess cholesterol.
  • It maintains a healthy balance of LDL and HDL cholesterol for cardiovascular health.

Immune System Support:

  • The liver houses immune cells called Kupffer cells, which defend against harmful microorganisms.
  • Kupffer cells remove bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens from the bloodstream, supporting the immune response.

Tips for maintaining a healthy liver

Maintain a Healthy Weight:

Control your weight to prevent fatty liver disease by adopting a balanced diet and exercising regularly.

Eat a Balanced Diet:

Avoid high-calorie meals, saturated fats, refined carbohydrates, and sugars. Opt for fiber-rich foods, fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, low-fat dairy, and “good” fats from vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and fish. Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.

Exercise Regularly:

Engage in regular physical activity to burn triglycerides for fuel and reduce liver fat.

Limit Exposure to Toxins:

Minimize contact with cleaning products, aerosols, insecticides, chemicals, and additives. Ensure proper ventilation and wear a mask when using aerosols. Quit smoking to avoid harmful toxins.

Use Alcohol Responsibly:

Alcohol in excess can damage liver cells, leading to inflammation and scarring. Consult with your doctor to determine the appropriate amount of alcohol for you, or consider quitting altogether.

Avoid Illicit Drugs:

Steer clear of illicit drugs and seek help if needed.

Use Clean Needles:

If getting tattoos or piercings, use clean needles to prevent infections.

Seek Medical Care for Blood Exposure:

If exposed to someone else’s blood, seek immediate medical care or go to the emergency room if necessary.

Do Not Share Personal Hygiene Items:

Avoid sharing razors, toothbrushes, or nail clippers to minimize the risk of bloodborne disease transmission.

Practice Safe Sex:

Reduce the risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C by practicing safe sex.

Wash Hands Thoroughly:

Maintain proper hand hygiene by washing hands with soap and warm water after using the bathroom, changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food.

Follow Medication Directions:

Adhere to the recommended dosage and instructions for medications. Avoid mixing alcohol with medications and inform your doctor about any over-the-counter medicines, supplements, or herbal remedies you use.

Get Vaccinated:

Protect yourself against hepatitis A and hepatitis B by receiving the recommended vaccinations. Limit alcohol intake and drink in moderation.

Maintain an Active Lifestyle:

Incorporate regular exercise and stay physically active to decrease stress on the liver, increase energy levels, and prevent obesity.

Follow a Healthy Diet:

Emphasize a balanced and nutritious diet by reducing saturated fats, trans fats, and hydrogenated fats. Include high-fiber foods, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, white meat, beans, and nuts. Limit consumption of red meat.

The liver’s intricate anatomy and diverse functions make it a remarkable organ crucial to our overall well-being. From metabolic processes to detoxification and immune support, its multifaceted role cannot be overstated. Understanding the importance of liver health and adopting habits that promote its optimal functioning is key to maintaining a healthy and balanced lifestyle. By nurturing our liver, we can pave the way for better overall health and longevity.


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Binod G C

I'm Binod G C (MSc), a PhD candidate in cell and molecular biology who works as a biology educator and enjoys scientific blogging. My proclivity for blogging is intended to make notes and study materials more accessible to students.

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