Comparisions and Differences between Animal Cell and Plant cell

Everything around us are either made up of a single cell or multiple cells. Single celled microorganisms are called unicellular organisms where protozoa, algae, bacteria, fungi falls upon this category while multicellular organisms include plant cells and animal cells. These cells are eukaryotic cells i.e, they contain true cell bound nucleus, organelles and its own unique genetic materials.

These eukaryotic cells reproduce via the process of mitosis and meiosis cell devision. Mitosis is a process of making duplicate copies of parent cells wheras meiosis is a process of formation of gametes and zygotes from egg and sperm cells.

Typical Animal Cell and Plant Cell
Typical Animal Cell and Plant Cell. (Photo By Encyclopaedia Britannica/UIG Via Getty Images)

Comparisions and Differences between Animal cell and Plant cell

S.N.CharacteristicsAnimal cellPlant cell
1.DefinitionAnimal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell and is a basic unit of life which comprises of all cells bound organelles to carry out different functions and to support metabolisms.Plant cell is also a type of eukaryotic cell and is a basic unit of life comprising of all cells bound organelles that carries out all functions and metabolisms.
2.Cell sizeCell size ranges between 10 to 30 micrometers in length and are relatively smaller than plant cells.Size of the plant cell ranges from 10 to 100 micrometers in length and are larger than animal cells.
3.Cell shapeAnimal cell shape varies with the functions as they perform, sometimes an irregular shape and sometimes form a round shape.Plant cells are rectangular and have fixed and almost similar shape most of the time. It does not vary with the functions they perform.
4.Cell wallAnimal cell consists of plasma membrane or cell membrane without a surrounding cell wall, but the cell membrane carries out all the functions and provides protection to the cell. This plasma membrane also conducts a major role of selective permeability of back and forth of micro and macro nutrients.Cell wall with cell membrane and cellulose covers the outer layer of plant cell which provides additional support and gives plant cell a rectangular shape. The presence of cell wall provides an easy way to distinguish plant cell from animal cell when observed under microscope.
5.CytoplasmIt encloses most of the cell organelles.It encloses all the cell organelles same as animal cell but contains an extra three components (vacuole, chloroplast and a cell wall).
6.Nucleus and nucleolusBoth are present but nucleus is centrally located.Both are present but nucleus is peripherally located.
7.RibosomesRibosomes are situated in cytosol in bound form with endoplasmic reticulum or in free floating form in cytoplasm. Ribosome helps in binding the aminoacidic sequence and carries out protein synthesis and also helps in gene coding.Ribosomes present in plant cell also helps in synthesis of protein and in repairing mechanism of cell.  

Differences between Animal cell and Plant cell

8.Endoplasmic Reticulum Both rough and smooth ER appears in animal cell as both are two interconnected sub compartments.Plant cell contains both interconnected flattened tubes: Smooth ER and Rough ER.  
9.VacuolesAnimal cell contains many small vacuoles which stores water, ions and wastes and are smaller in comparison to plant cell vacuoles.A singular vacuole of plant cell covers 90% of the cell volume and stores food and nutrients require for it.
10.LysosomesIn animal cell, not only lysosomes but centrosomes are also present which contains digestive and hydrolytic enzymes to break down complex molecules. It is also the garbage disposal of animal cell.The presence of lysosome in plant cell is still not evident but the vacuoles and Golgi bodies functions same as the lysosome.
11.CentriolesAll animal cells have centrioles which involves in cell division and produce mitotic spindle fibers.Only some lower plants like male gametes of bryophytes and seedless vascular plants have centrioles.
12.PeroxisomesPeroxisomes protects an animal cell from toxic hydrogen peroxide from the oxidation mechanisms and they synthesize plasmalogen lipids.In plant cell, peroxisomes, an oxidative enzyme that converts fatty acids into sugar and aids in photorespiration.
13.Golgi bodiesAnimal cell contains larger Golgi bodies which receives protein and fats, transports it, processes and packages into vesicles.Plant cell contains hundreds of small Golgi apparatus and functions in transporting, modifying, packaging and delivering to the destination.
14.PlastidsAnimal cells lack plastid.Plastids such as leucoplasts, chromoplasts and chloroplasts helps in color pigmentation and also helps in absorption of light during photosynthesis.
15.                      Microvilli                      Microvilli are finger like projection that functions as to increase the surface area of the cell size and increases the number of enzymes and rate of absorption.  In plant cell, microvilli are absent.                  
16.Cilia and flagellaCilia helps in cellular movement and allow animal cells to move. For instance, movement of sperm cell to an egg cell.Microtubules of cilia and flagella are absent in plant cell.
Differences between plant and animal cell



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