Ear infections are a common condition that affects people of all ages, particularly children. They occur when the middle ear, the area behind the eardrum, becomes inflamed or infected. The symptoms of an ear infection can include ear pain, a feeling of fullness in the ear, fever, and hearing loss.

There are three types of ear infections: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and chronic otitis media. Acute otitis media is the most common type and is often caused by a bacterial infection. It can be painful and may cause a fever. Otitis media with effusion occurs when fluid builds up in the middle ear and is often a result of a previous ear infection. Chronic otitis media is a long-term infection that can cause permanent damage to the middle ear and hearing loss.

Major infection of ear

 i) acute otitis media

ii) Chronic suppurative otits media

iii) otitis externa

Causative organisms of Ear infection:

S. pyogens, H. influenzae, Moraxellacatarrhalis, M. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, coliform bacilli

Mode of Ear infection:

  • Organisms spreads to middle ear via the Eustachian tube from Nasopharynx,
  • As long as eardrum remains intact, infected exudates cant be collected in the swabs
  • In such case throat swab may give provisional diagnosis


swabs taken from external auditary meatus

Transport media

Amies charcoal transport media


take two swabs if possible, one for culture and next for gram stain

-Nature of organisms in gram stain gives presumptive idea of causative agents

-Culture aerobically on MA and BA plates and SDA for fungal growth

  • On SDA place 50 unit disc of Nystatin and incubate at 35-37°C for Candidia and at 28°C for Aspergillus
  • On plates observe for the colony characteristics and perform different biochemical tests and identify the organism
  • For fungi perform lactophenol cotton blue cellophane tape method to observe the fungal spores
  • For Candida, Gram staining and Germ tube test: +ve


– Coagulase negative staphylococci, Diptheroid bacilli

– Should be ignored.

Treatment of Ear infection

Amoxycillin, Amoxy Clav, Erythromycin, Ofloxacin

Ear infections can be treated with antibiotics if they are caused by bacteria. Pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help alleviate pain and fever. For chronic ear infections, surgery may be required.

There are some things you can do to prevent ear infections. Good hygiene practices, such as washing your hands regularly, can help prevent the spread of bacteria. Avoid smoking or exposing yourself to secondhand smoke, as this can increase your risk of developing ear infections. If you are prone to ear infections, try to keep your ears dry by wearing earplugs when swimming or taking showers.

In conclusion, ear infections are a common condition that can cause discomfort and hearing loss. If you suspect that you or your child has an ear infection, it is important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. By taking preventative measures, you can reduce your risk of developing ear infections and maintain healthy ears.

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Binod G C

I'm Binod G C (MSc), a PhD candidate in cell and molecular biology who works as a biology educator and enjoys scientific blogging. My proclivity for blogging is intended to make notes and study materials more accessible to students.

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