Biology is a branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms. The word biology is made up of two Greek words: bios (life) and logos (knowledge). Aristotle was the first to investigate living organisms scientifically. As a result, he is referred to as the “Father of Biology.”

Botany is the scientific study of plant physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, categorization, and economic significance, whereas zoology is the scientific study of animal behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution in a certain area or time. Botany is named after Theophrastus, and zoology is named after Aristotle.

Scope of Biology

In the field of Agriculture:

  • Hybrid plants are seeds that have been genetically changed (GMOs). Crop production can be accelerated or replicated using GM seeds.
  • Organic fertilizers improve soil fertility without polluting the environment.
  • Insects such as butterflies and honeybees assist in pollinating plants and increasing agricultural production.
  • Different animals, such as earthworms and microorganisms (such as nitrifying bacteria), fertilize the soil and boost crop output.

In the field of Health and Medicine

  • All medical personnel, including doctors, nurses, health assistants, dentists, and others, have a biological background.
  • Only after successful studies on wild animals are different vaccinations developed.
  • Plant and animal components are used to make various medicines. Herbal plants, for example, are used to manufacture a variety of medicines.
  • Different diseases, such as malaria and kalazar, can only be controlled once the vector hosts, such as mosquitos and sand flies, are destroyed, which can only be done with biologists’ biological expertise.
  • After a successful test on wild animals, various medicines are developed.

Scope of biology in the field of industry

  • Biology aids in the manufacture of commodities by employing natural resources as raw material in a sustainable way.
  • Different businesses, such as dairy, fishery, and agro-industries, all require biologically educated personnel to operate.
  • Different sectors produce different types of waste. Thus, studying biology aids us in identifying pollution hazards and developing strategies to minimize them.

In the field of Art                                                                        

The study of biology has never failed to demonstrate its value through museums, art galleries, planetariums, and exhibitions, among other venues. Aside from these, there is a lot of potential in fields like biochemistry, biophysics, and animal husbandry. Now, as technology advances in each and every field, biology is becoming the primary source of information.

Science of Exceptions

 There are countless exceptions in biology. As a result, biology is an exception science. Even closely related groupings of living organisms show variance. The following are some of the exceptions:

  • Although DNA is normally double stranded, single stranded DNA can be found in some viruses(x174).
  • In all living things, DNA is the genetic material, but in some viruses, such as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), RNA contains the genetic material.
  • Except in camels, all mammalian RBCs lack a nucleus.
  • Reptiles have three chambered hearts, whereas crocodiles have four chambered hearts.
  • The seeds of dicot plants have two cotyledons. Dodder (Cuscuta) seeds, on the other hand, lack cotyledons.
  • Roots are non-photosynthetic and non-green, however Tinospora roots are green and photosynthetic.Dicot plants have reticulate venation but Colocasia, Smilax which are monocots, also have reticulate venation in leaves.
  • Mammals give birth to young ones, but spiny- ant eater and duck-billed platypus are egg laying mammals.

General Approach to Understand Life Processes

The study of living organisms and their processes is known as biology. There are two ways to think about it.

1. The reductionist principle, which divides biology into multiple branches for specialized research.

2. The vitalist principle views life as unique and exceptional. It is believed that life cannot be explained purely in terms of physical and chemical rules, and that life possesses unique attributes to the system. These characteristics are seen in biological processes.                                                                                                                                              

Life as an Open System    

 An open system is one that relies on a constant flow of energy and matter from the outside. Because all living entities require a constant supply of energy from the environment, life is an open system.

The input of matter and energy is equivalent to the output in an open system. Because they take in energy, water, and oxygen and emit heat, CO2, and nitrogenous wastes, a system in a steady state is said to be in balance or equilibrium between input and output. In reaction to changes in the external environment, all organisms have the ability to preserve their internal condition. This is one of the most astounding characteristics of living things. Homeostasis is the term for a self-regulating system like this.

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